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Sunday, May 31, 2009

Types of Lies!

What is a lie? A lie is to say something that one knows to be false or that one has not reasonably ascertained to be true with the intention that it be taken for the truth by oneself or someone else.

Types of lies are:

Fabrication-
A fabrication is a lie told when someone submits a statement as truth, without knowing for certain whether or not it actually is true. Although the statement may be possible or plausible, it is not based on fact. Rather, it is something made up, or it is a misrepresentation of the truth.

Lying by omission-
One lies by omission by omitting an important fact, deliberately leaving another person with a misconception. Lying by omission includes failures to correct pre-existing misconceptions.

Noble lie-
A noble lie is one which would normally cause discord if it were uncovered, but which offers some benefit to the liar and assists in an orderly society, therefore potentially beneficial to others. It is often told to maintain law, order and safety.
Bold-face lie-
A bold-faced often also referred to as bare-faced or bald-faced, although all three have slightly different meanings, lie is one which is told when it is obvious to all concerned that it is a lie.

Emergency lie-
An emergency lie is a strategic lie told when the truth may not be told because, for example, harm to a third party would result.

White lie-
A white lie would cause only relatively minor discord if it were uncovered, and typically offers some benefit to the hearer. White lies are often used to avoid offense, such as complimenting something one finds unattractive. In this case, the lie is told to avoid the harmful realistic implications of the truth. As a concept, it is largely defined by local custom and cannot be clearly separated from other lies with any authority.
Bluffing-
To bluff is to pretend to have a capability or intention which one does not actually possess.Bluffing is an act of deception which is rarely seen as immoral, because it takes place in the context of a game where this kind of deception is consented to in advance by the players.

Exaggeration-
Occurs when the most fundamental aspects of a statement are true, but only to a certain degree. It is also seen as "stretching the truth" or making something appear more powerful, meaningful, or real than it actually is.

Lying in Trade-
The seller of a product or service may advertise untrue facts about the product or service in order to gain sales, especially by competitive advantage.
Puffery-
Is an exaggerated claim typically found in advertising and publicity announcements, such as "the highest quality at the lowest price," or "always votes in the best interest of all the people," or "even a jeweler cannot tell it from a genuine diamond."

Contextual lies-
One can state part of the truth out of context, knowing that without complete information, it gives a false impression.
Misleading/Dissembling-
statement is one where there is no outright lie, but still retains the purpose of getting someone to believe in an untruth. "Dissembling" likewise implies presenting facts in a way that is literally true, but intentionally misleading.


Jocose lies-
Jocose lies are those which are meant in jest, and are usually understood as such by all present parties. Teasing and sarcasms are examples.

Lie-to-children-
often a platitude which may use euphemism, which is told to make an adult subject acceptable to children.

Perjury-
Is the act of lying or making verifiability false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law, or in any of various sworn statements in writing.

I have read this article via Wikipedia.
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Geraldine

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